[Picture of projector]

Laramie Movie Scope:
Review Archive: E through G

An alphabetical listing of Robert Roten's film reviews of movies with titles starting with the letters E through G.
(Links to: A through B C-D H-I J-L M-N O-Q R-S T-Z)

[Strip of film rule] E [Strip of film rule]

Eagle Vs. Shark[3 stars]
Eagle Vs. Shark (Ivers)
Eden and After (Ivers)
Earth[3 stars]
Earth (Ivers)
Eastern Promises[3 stars]
Eastern Promises (Ivers)
East L.A. Marine: The Untold True Story of Guy Gabaldon (Ivers)
Easy A[3.5 stars]
Easy Virtue (Ivers)
Eat Pray Love[3 stars]
Eat Pray Love (Ivers)
The Eclipse[2.5 stars]
The Eclipse (Ivers)
The Edge[2 stars]
The Edge of Heaven (Ivers)
Edge of Tomorrow[3.5 stars]
Edge of Tomorrow (Ivers)
The Edge of Seventeen (Ivers)
EDtv[3 stars]
An Education[3.5 stars]
An Education (Ivers)
The Education of Little Tree[3 stars]
The Education of Little Tree (Ivers)
Ed Wood[2 stars]
Edward Scissorhands[3 stars]
Eight Below[2.5 stars]
Eight-Legged Freaks[2.5 stars]
Elaine Stritch: Shoot Me[3 stars]
Elaine Stritch: Shoot Me (Ivers)
El Cid[3 stars]
El Cid (Ivers)
Election[3.5 stars]
Election (Ivers)[4 stars]
El Dorado (Ivers)
Elegy (Ivers)
Elephant (Ivers)
Elf [2.5 stars]
Elf (Ivers)
Elizabeth (1998)[2 stars]
Elizabeth (1998) (Ivers)
Elizabeth I (Ivers)
Elizabeth: The Golden Age (Ivers)
Ella Enchanted[3 stars]
Elle[3 stars]
Elle (Ivers)
Elling[3 stars]
Elling (Ivers)
Elvis: His Best Friend Remembers (DVD review)[3 stars]
Elmer Gantry (Ivers)
Elton John in Concert (Ivers)
Elvis and Anabelle (Ivers)
Elysium[2.5 stars]
Emma (1996)[3 stars]
Emma (2010) (Ivers)
Emmanuelle (Ivers)
The Emperor and the Assassin (Ivers)
The Emperor of the North (Pole)[3 stars]
The Emperor of the North (Pole) (Ivers)
The Emperor's Club[3.5 stars]
The Emperor's Club (Ivers)
The Emperor's New Clothes[3 stars]
The Emperor's New Clothes (Ivers)
The Emperor's New Groove[3 stars]
Enchanted[3 stars]
Enchanted (Ivers)
Encino Man[2 stars]
Encounters at the End of the World (Ivers)
Encounters at the End of the World[3 stars]
Ender's Game[2.5 stars]
Endgame (Ivers)
End of Days[2 stars]
The End of Surburbia (Ivers)
The End of the Tour[3.5 stars]
The End of the Tour (Ivers)
End of Watch [2.5 stars]
The Endurance[3 stars]
Enemies, A Love Story (Ivers)
Enemy[2.5 stars]
Enemy at the Gates[3 stars]
Enemy Mine (Ivers)
Enemy of the State[3.5 stars]
The Englishman Who Went Up a Hill but Came Down a Mountain (Ivers)
The English Patient[3 stars]
Enigma[3 stars]
Enola Holmes[3 stars]
Enough Said[3 stars]
Enough Said (Ivers)
Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room[3 stars]
Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room (Ivers)
Entertainment[2 stars]
Entertainment (Ivers)
Enter the Void (Ivers)
Entrapment[2.5 stars]
Entrapment (Ivers)
Epic[3 stars]
Epicentro[3 stars]
Eragon[2.5 stars]
Eraser[2.5 stars]
Eraserhead (Ivers)
Erin Brockovich[4 stars]
Escaflowne[2 stars]
Escape From L.A.[3 stars]
Escape From L.A. (Ivers)
Escape From New York (Ivers)
Escape From Planet Earth[2 stars]
Escape From Sobibor (Ivers)
Escape Plan[2.5 stars]
Escapes[2.5 stars]
Escapes (Ivers)
Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind[4 stars]
Eternity and a Day (Ivers)
At Eternity's Gate[3 stars]
E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial The 20th Anniversary[4 stars]
Europa Report[3 stars]
Europa Report (Ivers)
The Europeans (Ivers)
Evan Almighty (Ivers)
Evelyn[3 stars]
Event Horizon[1 star]
Ever After[3.5 stars]
Everest[3 stars]
Everybody's Fine[3 stars]
Everyone Else (Alle Anderen)[2 stars]
Everyone Else (Alle Anderen) (Ivers)
Everyone Says I Love You (Ivers)
Everything, Everything (Ivers)
Everything is Illuminated (Ivers)
Everything Must Go (Ivers)
Evil Roy Slade[2.5 stars]
Evita[2.5 stars]
Evita (Ivers)
Evocateur: The Morton Downey Jr. Movie[3 stars]
Evocateur: The Morton Downey Jr. Movie (Ivers)
Evolution[2.5 stars]
Excess Baggage[3 stars]
Executive Decision[3 stars]
Exit Through the Gift Shop[4 stars]
Exit Through the Gift Shop (Ivers)
Exit Wounds[1 star]
Ex Machina[3.5 stars]
Ex Machina (Ivers)
The Exorcist[3.5 stars]
Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed (Ivers)
The Expendables[2 stars]
The Expendables 2[3 stars]
The Expendables 3[2 stars]
Experimenter[3 stars]
The Express[3 stars]
The Exterminating Angel (1962) (Ivers)
The Exterminating Angels (2006) (Ivers)
Extract[2.5 stars]
The Extra Man[3 stars]
The Extra Man (Ivers)
Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close[3 stars]
Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close (Ivers)
Extreme Measures[3 stars]
The Eyes of My Mother[1 star]
The Eyes of My Mother (Ivers)
Eye in the Sky[3 stars]
Eye in the Sky (Ivers)
Eye of the Beholder (Ivers)
Eyes Wide Shut[3 stars]
Eyes Wide Shut (Ivers)

[Strip of film rule] F [Strip of film rule]

The Fabulous Baker Boys (Ivers)
Face/Off[2.5 stars]
Factotum (Ivers)
Fading Gigolo (Ivers)
Fahrenheit 9/11[3 stars]
Fahrenheit 11/9[2 stars]
Fail-Safe (Ivers)
Failure to Launch[2 stars]
Fair Game[3 stars]
Fair Game (Ivers)
The Fairwell Party (Ivers)
The Fall (Ivers)
Fall Classic at Fenway Park[4 stars]
Fallen[2.5 stars]
Falling (Ivers)
Falling Down[2 stars]
Fallout: Coming Home from the War in Iraq (Ivers)
Family Fundamentals[2.5 stars]
The Family Man[2.5 stars]
The Family Stone[2 stars]
The Family Stone (Ivers)
The Fan[3 stars]
Fanny Hill (1983) (Ivers)
Fanny Hill (2007) (Ivers)
Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them[3.5 stars]
Fantastic Beasts: The Crimes of Grindelwald[1.5 stars]
Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them (Ivers)
Fantastic Four[2 stars]
Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer[2.5 stars]
Fantastic Mr. Fox[3 stars]
Fantastic Mr. Fox (Ivers)
Far and Away[2 stars]
The Far Country (Ivers)
The Farewell[3 stars]
Farewell My Lovely (Ivers)
Far From Heaven[3 stars]
Far From Heaven (Ivers)
Far From the Madding Crowd (1967) (Ivers)
Far from the Madding Crowd (2015) (Ivers)
Far From the Madding Crowd (2015)[3 stars]
Fargo[4 stars]
Fast, Cheap and Out of Control[3 stars]
The Fast and the Furious[2 stars]
Fast Five[3 stars]
Fast & Furious 6[3 stars]
Fast & Furious Presents: Hobbs & Shaw[2.5 stars]
Fast Food Nation (Ivers)
The Fast Runner (Atanarjuat)[2.5 stars]
Fat City (Ivers)
Fateless (Sorstalanság)[3 stars]
Fate of the Furious[3 stars]
À ma soeur! (Fat Girl)[3 stars]
The Father[3 stars]
Father's Day[2 stars]
Fat Man and Little Boy (Ivers)
The Fault in Our Stars (Ivers)
Faust (1994-Ivers)
Fausto 5.0 (Ivers)
The Favourite[3 stars]
Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas (Ivers)
Felicia's Journey[3 stars]
Fences[3 stars]
Fences (Ivers)
Festival Express[3 stars]Festival Express DVD[3.5 stars]
Fever Pitch[2.5 stars]
A Few Good Men[4 stars]
ffolkes (Ivers)
The Fifth Element[3 stars]
The Fifth Estate (Ivers)
The Fifth Estate[2 stars]
Fight Club[4 stars]
Fight Club (Ivers)
The Fighter[3 stars]
The Fighter (Ivers)
Fight Night (AKA Rigged)[3 stars]
Fight Night (AKA Rigged) (Ivers)
Fighting With My Family[3 stars]
Filth[2.5 stars]
Filth (Ivers)
The Final Countdown (Ivers)
Final Destination[3 stars]
Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within[2.5 stars]
The Final Year[3 stars]
The Final Year (Ivers)
Finding Forrester[2.5 stars]
Finding Dory[2.5 stars]
Finding Nemo[3 stars]
Finding Neverland[3 stars]
Finding Neverland (Ivers)
Finding Vivian Maier[4 stars]
Finding Vivian Maier[3 stars] (Ivers)
Fine Dead Girls (Ivers)
The Finest Hours[2 stars]
The Finest Hours (Ivers)
Fire at Sea[2 stars]
Fire at Sea (Ivers)
Fire Down Below[1.5 stars]
Firefly: The Complete Series (DVD review)[4 stars]
Firestorm[2 stars]
Firewall[2 stars]
Fireworks Wednesday[3 stars]
Fireworks Wednesday (Ivers)
The Firm[4 stars]
The First Amendment Project (DVD)[3 stars]
First Cow[3 stars]
First Reformed[3 stars]
First Man[4 stars]
The First Monday in May[3 stars]
The First Monday in May (Ivers)
First Position[4 stars]
First Position (Ivers)
First They Killed My Father[3 stars]
First They Killed My Father (Ivers)
The First Wives Club[2 stars]
The Fisher King[3 stars]
Fish Tank (Ivers)
A Fist Full of Dollars (Ivers)
Fist of Legend (Jing wu ying xiong)[3 stars]
Fist of Fury (The Chinese Connection)[2.5 stars] Fist of Fury DVD[1 star]
Five Venoms (Wu du)[2 stars]
Flags of Our Fathers[3.5 stars]
Flags of Our Fathers (Ivers)
Flash Gordon (Ivers)
Flash of Genius (Ivers)
The Flat[4 stars]
The Flat (Ivers)
Flatliners[3 stars]
Fletch (Ivers)
Flight[3.5 stars]
Flight (Ivers)
Flight of the Red Balloon[no stars]
Flightplan[3 stars]
Flint Star: The Motion Picture[3 stars]
Flipped (Ivers)
The Flim-Flam Man (Ivers)
Flock of Dodos: The Evolution-Intelligent Design Circus (Ivers)
La Flor de mi Secreto (Ivers)
Florence Foster Jenkins (Ivers)
The Florida Project[3 stars]
Flow (Ivers)
Flow[2.5 stars]
Flubber[1 star]
Flushed Away[2.5 stars]
Flyboys[2.5 stars]
Flying Tigers[2 stars]
Focus (2001)[3 stars]
Focus (2015)[2.5 stars]
The Fog of War:
11 Lessons from the life of Robert S. McNamara
[4 stars]
Following (Ivers)
Food, Inc.[3 stars]
Food, Inc. (Ivers)
Fools[2.5 stars]
Fools (Ivers)
Footnote (Ivers)
For a Few Dollars More (Ivers)
For all Mankind[3 stars]
Forbidden Kingdom[3 stars]
Forbidden Planet (Ivers)
Force Majeure (Turist)[3 stars]
Force Majeure (Turist) (Ivers)
Forces of Nature[1 star]
For Colored Girls[3 stars]
For Colored Girls (Ivers)
Ford v Ferrari[4 stars]
Forged (Ivers)
The Forgotten[3 stars]
Forever Young[2.5 stars]
Forget Paris (Ivers)
Forgetting Sarah Marshall[3 stars]
For Love of the Game[3 stars]
For Love of the Game (Ivers)
For My Father (Ivers)
Forrest Gump[4 stars]
The Forsaken[1 star]
For Sama[3.5 stars]
Fortress 2[1 star]
The Forty-Year-Old Version[3 stars]
For Your Consideration[1 star]
For Your Consideration (Ivers)
Four Lions[1 star]
Four Lions (Ivers)
The Fountain[4 stars]
The Fountain (Ivers)
Four Brothers[3 stars]
The Four Feathers (2002)[3 stars]
Four Weddings and a Funeral[3 stars]
Foxcatcher[2.5 stars]
Foxcatcher (Ivers)
Frailty[3 stars]
Frances Ha[3 stars]
Frances Ha (Ivers)
Frank[3 stars]
Frank (Ivers)
Frankenstein: The Legacy Collection (DVD review)[3.5 stars]
Frankenweenie (2012)[3 stars]
Frankenweenie (2102) (Ivers)
Freakonomics[3 stars]
Freakonomics (Ivers)
Freaky Friday[3 stars]
Freedomland[3 stars]
Freejack[2 stars]
Free Solo[3 stars]
Free State of Jones[2 stars]
Free State of Jones (Ivers)
Free the Nipple (Ivers)
Freeway[3 stars]
Freeway (Ivers)
French Kiss[3 stars]
Frequency[3 stars]
Frida[2.5 stars]
Frida (Ivers)
Frida: Naturaleza Viva (Ivers)
Friday Night Lights[3 stars]
Fried Green Tomatoes[3.5 stars]
Frisco Jenny (Ivers)
From Beyond (Ivers)
From Hell[2 stars]
From Here to Eternity (Ivers)
From Up On Poppy Hill[3 stars]
From Up On Poppy Hill (Ivers)
The Front (Ivers)
Frontera[4 stars]
Frontera (Ivers)
The Front Page (Ivers)
Frost/Nixon (Ivers)
Frost/Nixon[4 stars]
Frozen[3.5 stars]
Frozen (Ivers)
Frozen 2[2.5 stars]
Frozen River[3.5 stars]
Frozen River (Ivers)
Fruitvale Station (Ivers)
Fuck (Ivers)
Fuel (Ivers)
Full Metal Jacket (Ivers)
The Full Monty[3 stars]
Funny People[3 stars]
Fun With Dick and Jane[2 stars]
Fur (Ivers)
Furious 7[3.5 stars]
Fury[3 stars]
The Future[3 stars]
The Future (Ivers)

[Strip of film rule] G [Strip of film rule]

Gabrielle (Ivers)
Gainsbourg: A Heroic Life (Ivers)
Galaxy Quest[3 stars]
The Game[3 stars]
Game Change (Ivers)
The Game is Over (Ivers)
Game of Death (Ivers)
Gamer (BD 3D review)[3 stars]
Gamerz (DVD review)[3 stars]
Gangs of New York[4 stars]
Garden State[4 stars]
Garden State (Ivers)
Gattaca[3 stars]
Gattaca (Ivers)
Gemini Man[3 stars]
Gemma Bovery (Ivers)
The General[3 stars]
The General's Daughter[2 stars]
The Genesis Code (Ivers)
Genesis: The Gabriel Era (Ivers)
Genesis: Inside Genesis (Ivers)
Genius (Ivers)
Genius by Stephen Hawking (Ivers)
Gentleman's Agreement (Ivers)
Gentlemen Prefer Blonds (Ivers)
George Carlin: George's Best Stuff (Ivers)
George Carlin: Life is Worth Losing (Ivers)
George of the Jungle[3 stars]
George Washington[2.5 stars]
Georgia O'Keeffe (Ivers)
Gertrud (Ivers)
Get Carter[2 stars]
Get Him to the Greek[2.5 stars]
Get Low[3 stars]
Get Low (Ivers)
Get On Up[3 stars]
Get On Up (Ivers)
Get Out[3 stars]
Get Out (Ivers)
Get Over It[2 stars]
Get Shorty[4 stars]
Get Shorty (Ivers)
Get Smart[3 stars]
Get Smart (Ivers)
Gettysburg (Ivers)
Gettysburg and Stories of Valor (DVD)[2 stars]
G-Force[2.5 stars]
Ghost[3 stars]
The Ghost and the Darkness[3 stars]
Ghostbusters (2016)[3 stars]
Ghostbusters II (Ivers)
Ghost Dog: The Way of the Samurai (Ivers)
Ghost in the Shell (1995)[3 stars]
Ghost in the Shell (2017)[3 stars]
Ghost in the Shell (2017) (Ivers)
Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex Committee (Ivers)
Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence[3 stars]
Ghost Rider[2.5 stars]
Ghost Rider: Spirit of Vengeance[1.5 stars]
Ghosts of Abu Gharib[2.5 stars]
Ghosts of Mars[2 stars]
A Ghost Story[3 stars]
A Ghost Story (Ivers)
Ghost Town (Ivers)
Ghost Town[3 stars]
Ghost World[3 stars]
Ghost Writer[3 stars]
Ghost Writer (Ivers)
G.I. Jane[3 stars]
G.I. Joe: The Rise of Cobra[3 stars]
G.I. Joe: Retaliation[2.5 stars]
The Gift[3.5 stars]
Gifted[3 stars]
Gifted (Ivers)
Gilda (Ivers)
Gimme the Loot[3.5 stars]
Gimme the Loot (Ivers)
The Girlfriend Experience[2 stars]
The Girlfriend Experience (Ivers)
The Girl in the Cafe (Ivers)
Girlfight[3 stars]
Girl, Interrupted[3 stars]
Girl Model (Ivers)
The Girl Next Door (2004)[2.5 stars]
The Girl Next Door (2000) (Ivers)
The Girl on the Bridge (Ivers)
The Girl on the Train (2009) (Ivers)
The Girl on the Train (2013) (Ivers)
The Girl on the Train (2016)[2 stars]
The Girl on the Train (2016) (Ivers)
A Girl Walks Home Alone at Night[4 stars]
A Girl Walks Home Alone at Night (Ivers)
The Girl With the Dragon Tattoo (2009)[3 stars]
The Girl With the Dragon Tattoo (2009 Ivers)
The Girl With the Dragon Tattoo (2011)[3 stars]
The Girl With the Dragon Tattoo (2011 Ivers)
The Girl Who Played With Fire (Ivers)
The Girl Who Kicked the Hornet's Nest (Ivers)
Girl With a Pearl Earring [2.5 stars]
Girl With a Pearl Earring (Ivers)
Gladiator[3.5 stars]
Gladiators[2.5 stars]
The Glass House[2 stars]
The Glass Virgin (Ivers)
Glengarry Glen Ross[3 stars]Glengarry Glen Ross DVD[4 stars]
The Glimmer Man[2 stars]
Glory[3 stars]
Glory Road[3 stars]
Go[3 stars]
Go (Ivers)
The Go-Between (Ivers)
God Bless America[4 stars]
God Bless America (Ivers)
And God Created Woman (Ivers)
God in America (Ivers)
The God of Mathematics: Georg Cantor's Infinities (Ivers)
God on Trial (Ivers)
God Said, Ha![3 stars]
Gods and Generals[2 stars]
Gods and Generals (Ivers)
The God Who Wasn't There (Ivers)
Godzilla (1998)[2 stars]
Godzilla (2014)[3 stars]
Godzilla 2000[1 star]
Godzilla vs. Kong[2.5 stars]
Going Clear: Scientology and the Prison of Belief[4 stars]
Going Clear: Scientology and the Prison of Belief (Ivers)
Gold Diggers of 1933 (Ivers)
The Golden Bowl[3 stars]
The Golden Boys (Ivers)
The Golden Compass[3 stars]
The Golden Compass (Ivers)
Golden Door (Nuovomondo)[2.5 stars]
Golden Door (Nuovomondo) (Ivers)
Goldeneye (Ivers)
The Golden Voyage of Sinbad (Ivers)
Gomorrah (Ivers)
Gomorrah[3 stars]
Gone Baby Gone[2.5 stars]
Gone Baby Gone (Ivers)
Gone Girl[3 stars]
Gone Girl (Ivers)
Gone in 60 Seconds (1974)[1.5 stars]
Gone in Sixty Seconds (2000)[2.5 stars]
Gonzo: The Life and Work of Dr. Hunter S. Thomson (Ivers)
Gonzo: The Life and Work of Dr. Hunter S. Thompson[3 stars]
Good (Ivers)
Good bye Lenin![3.5 stars]
Good bye Lenin! (Ivers)
Goodbye, Mr. Chips (1969) (Ivers)
Goodbye Solo[3 stars]
Goodbye Solo (Ivers)
Good Bye 20th Century![2 stars]
A Good Day to Die Hard[2.5 stars]
The Good Doctor[3 stars]
The Good Doctor (Ivers)
The Good German[2.5 stars]
The Good German (Ivers)
The Good Girl[2.5 stars]
Good Night and Good Luck[4 stars]
Good Night and Good Luck (Ivers)
Good Ol' Freda[3 stars]
Good Ol' Freda (Ivers)
The Good Shepherd[3 stars]
The Good Shepherd (Ivers)
The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (Il Buono, il brutto, il cattivo) (Ivers)
Good Time[3 stars]
Good Will Hunting[4 stars]
A Good Woman (Ivers)
Google Me[3 stars]
Google Me (Ivers)
Goon[3 stars]
Goon (Ivers)
Gosford Park[2.5 stars]
Gosford Park (DVD review)[3 stars]
Gosford Park (Ivers)
The Gospel According to St. Matthew (Ivers)
Goya's Ghosts (Ivers)
Gradiva (Ivers)
Graham Nash Live (Ivers)
The Grand Budapest Hotel[3 stars]
The Grand Budapest Hotel (Ivers)
Grand Canyon[2 stars]
Grand Illusion (Ivers)
Grand Piano (Ivers)
Gran Torino[3 stars]
Gran Torino (Ivers)
Grave of the Fireflies[3 stars]Grave of the Fireflies DVD[4 stars]
Gravity[3.5 stars]
Gravity (Ivers)
The Great Beauty[4 stars]
The Great Beauty (Ivers)
The Great Debaters[3.5 stars]
The Greatest Game Ever Played[3 stars]
The Greatest Game Ever Played (Ivers)
The Greatest Showman[2 stars]
The Great Gatsby (2013)[3 stars]
The Great Gatsby (2013) (Ivers)
The Great McGinty (Ivers)
The Great Raid[2.5 stars]
The Great Santini (Ivers)
Greenberg[2.5 stars]
Greenberg (Ivers)
Green Book[4 stars]
Greenfingers (Ivers)
The Green Hornet[3 stars]
The Green Hornet (Ivers)
Green Lantern[3 stars]
The Green Mile[3 stars]
The Green Pastures (Ivers)
Green Zone[2 stars]
Green Zone (Ivers)
The Grey[2 stars]
Greyhound[3 stars]
Grindhouse[2 stars]
A Grin Without a Cat (Le fond de l'air est rouge)[2 stars]
A Grin Without a Cat (Ivers)
Grizzly Man[3 stars]
Grosse Pointe Blank[2.5 stars]
Groundhog Day[4 stars]
The Ground Truth: After the Killing Ends[3 stars]
The Ground Truth: After the Killing Ends (Ivers)
The Grudge[3 stars]
Grumpy Old Men[2.5 stars]
The Guardian[2.5 stars]
Guardians of the Galaxy[3 stars]
Guardians of the Galaxy (Ivers)
Guardians of the Galaxy Volume 2[2.5 stars]
Guardians of the Galaxy Volume 2 (Ivers)
Guess Who[2 stars]
The Guilty[3 stars]
Gunda[3 stars]
Gunner Palace[3 stars]
Guys and Dolls (Ivers)
Gypsy (Ivers)

[Strip of film rule] Links to: A through B C-D H-I J-L M-N O-Q R-S T-Z
[Strip of film rule]

Back to the Laramie Movie Scope index.

[Rule made of Seventh Seal sillouettes]

Robert Roten can be reached via e-mail at my last name at lariat dot org. [Mailer button: image of letter and envelope]